تعهد به ترمیم منابع و تأسیسات آبی و جبران خسارت زیان‌دیگان پس از مخاصمات مسلحانه در حقوق بین‌الملل

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار / گروه حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته دکتری/ حقوق بین الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران .

چکیده

در پی روند فزاینده کم‌یابی آب در جهان، رقابت بر سر دستیابی بیشتر به آب میان کشورها فزونی یافته‌است. چنان‌که آب گاهی به منشأیی برای بروز تعارضات بین‌المللی بدل می‌شود. از طرفی، آب و تأسیسات آبی همواره در جنگ‌ها به عنوان سلاح و یا به عنوان اهداف نظامی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته‌اند. پیشگیری از جنگ‌های آبی موضوع قواعد حقوقی توسل به زور است و حفاظت از منابع آب در حین مخاصمات در حقوق بشردوستانه بین‌المللی مورد نظر واقع شده‌است. در مرحله پس از مخاصمات مسلحانه، مشکلاتی از قبیل آسیب به زیرساخت‌های آبی، آلودگی آب‌ها و عدم دسترسی به آب آشامیدنی سالم مردم مناطق جنگ‌زده، نه‌ تنها موجودیت و کیفیت منابع آبی را خدشه‌دار می‌‌کند بلکه می‌تواند به طرق مختلف صلح و امنیت بین‌المللی را تهدید نماید. بنا به اهمیت حفاظت از منابع آبی پس از جنگ‌ها در امر صلح‌سازی و نبود قواعد حقوقی صریح در این موضوع، پرسش اصلی تحقیق آن است که مهم‌ترین تعهدات حقوق بین‌الملل در موضوع ترمیم منابع و تأسیسات آبی پس از مخاصمات مسلحانه و جبران خسارت قربانیان چیست؟ نتیجه برآمده از مطالعات توصیفی- تحلیلی نگارندگان مؤید آن است که حقوق بین‌الملل در این زمینه هرچند تا کنون به قواعد خاص و مقررات تفصیلی دست نیافته است لیکن با خلأ مواجه نبوده و می‌توان به مدد اصول و موازین عام حقوق بین‌الملل موضوعه، تعهدات و سازکارهایی را به منظور بازسازی مناطق آسیب‌دیده و پاسخگویی در مقابل قربانیان جنگ استنباط نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Obligation to Restoration of Water Resources and Facilities and Compensation of Damaged after Armed Conflicts in International Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Fazaeli 1
  • Mahnaz Rashidi 2
1 Associate Prof., Department of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom, Iran
2 Ph.D. Graduate of International Law, Department of International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Qom, Qom
چکیده [English]

Due to the increasing process of water shortage in the world, State’s competition for more access to water has increased; as water has sometimes been a source of international conflicts. On the other hand, water and water facilities have always been used as weapons or as military targets in wars. The issues of preventing water wars have been indirectly addressed by the legal rules on the use of force and the protection of water resources during armed conflicts have been sought in international humanitarian law. In the post armed conflicts, problems such as damage to water infrastructures, pollution of waters and lack of access to safe drinking water in war-affected areas, threaten not only the availability and quality of water resources, but also, they can threat international peace and security in different ways. Due to the importance of conserving water resources for peacekeeping in post-war stage and the lack of explicit legal rules in this regard, the main question of this research is that what is the most international law obligations about restoration of water resources and facilities after armed conflicts and compensation for victims? The result of the descriptive-analytical studies of the authors shows that international law has no legal vacuum in this regard and mechanisms and rules for reconstruction of damaged areas and accountability to war victims can be deduced from the principles and rules of applicable international law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water
  • Reconstruction
  • Accountability
  • International Law
  • Armed Conflict
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