بازتخصیص خاموش آب در حوضه زاینده‌رود

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 برنامه آب و توسعه/ پژوهشکده سیاستگذاری دانشگاه شریف.

2 برنامه آب و توسعه، پژوهشکده سیاستگذاری دانشگاه شریف.

چکیده

تحولات اقتصادی و اجتماعی، تنوع و افزایش نیازهای آب را به همراه داشته است. محدودیت منابع آب تجدیدپذیر حوضه‌های آبریز ممکن است در بسیاری از موارد عامل محدودکننده رشد نیازهای آب نبوده و استمرار افزایش مصارف و به تبع آن جابه‌جایی حقوق آب و بازتخصیص را به دنبال داشته باشد. بازتخصیص به طور کلی ظرفیتی برای مدیریت تقاضای آب برای مواجهه با کم‌آبی است؛ اما سازوکار آن می‌تواند متنوع باشد. وضعیت حکمرانی و حقوق آب مناطق مختلف تعیین می‌کند بازتخصیص چقدر بر مبنای عدالت و پایداری و یا زور و قدرت صورت گرفته است. در این مقاله با بررسی اسنادی و مصاحبه‌های میدانی، تجربه بازتخصیص در حوضه زاینده‌رود مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در حوضه زاینده‌رود سه سازوکار برای بازتخصیص شامل بازتخصیص از حقابه‌های قدیمی به مصارف مورد نظر دولت، بازتخصیص از پایین‌دست به بالادست و بازتخصیص از بهره‌برداران قدیمی آب زیرزمینی به صاحبان چاه‌های جدید مشاهده می‌شود. فقدان شفافیت و عدم مشارکت حقابه‌داران در تصمیم‌گیری‌های بازتخصیص موجب گردید جلب رضایت و جبران خسارتی صورت نگیرد که در این مقاله از عنوان بازتخصیص خاموش برای توصیف آن استفاده شده است. طی یک دهه اخیر حوضه زاینده‌رود شاهد واکنش‌هایی نسبت به تبعات بازتخصیص خاموش بوده است. واکنش‌های دولت نشان از سردرگمی و تعلل در تصمیم‌گیری و ناتوانی از اجرا دارد و واکنش جامعه نیز با وجود پیشرفت‌های قابل توجه در ارتقا آگاهی و گردش اطلاعات، سازماندهی و مکانیزم نمایندگان، به دلیل مطالبه صرف آب و عدم پیگیری فرصت‌های توسعه کم‌آب‌بر، موجب پیچیدگی بیشتر مدیریت مسائل این حوضه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Silent Reallocations in Zayandehrud River Basin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soroush Talebi eskandari 1
  • Seyed jalaledin Mirnezami 2
1 Water and Development Program, Sharif Policy Research Institute (SPRI).
2 Water and Development Program, Sharif Policy Research Institute (SPRI).
چکیده [English]

Social and economic changes can multiplicate and rise water demands. As witnessed in many cases around the globe, limited renewable water resources have not effectively played a confining role for the developments, and with the rising demands, subtle transfer of rights or reallocations have taken place. Reallocation can be considered as a strategy to curb the issues of water scarcity and to exercise water demand management, in very different ways. Governance and water rights are determinative factors for the quality of reallocation with regard to the issues of equity and sustainability. By conducting a qualitative research through interviews, observations and document analysis, in this paper we have investigated the process of reallocation in Zayandehrud basin, Iran. The research revealed three mechanisms of reallocation: from previous right-holders to the government-defined purposes; from downstream to upstream; and from previous groundwater right-holders to new users. Lack of transparency and stakeholder participation in the reallocations without taking compensative measures is why here we have coined this experience a “silent reallocation”. As with the growing effects of silent reallocations, Zayanderud basin has witnessed contentious interactions among right-holders and the government. Reactions and decisions by the government reveal confusion and inability to deal with the complicated circumstances of the reallocations occurred. Meanwhile, though the reactions by the right-holder groups of farmers imply for raised local awareness and tremendous improvements in their social capacity to organize their power and influence, the sole request for furthering their access to water has complicated the controversies without distinguishable outcomes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Zayandehrud
  • Silent Reallocation
  • Water Rights
  • Water Governance
  • Water conflicts

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