تعیین حریم کیفی چاه های آب شرب با درنظر گرفتن پتانسیل آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد / آب و سازه‌های هیدرولیکی، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار/ دانشکده مهندسی عمران، آب و محیط زیست، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در اغلب مناطق قسمت قابل ملاحظه‌ای از آب شرب به وسیله چاه‌ها و از منابع آب زیرزمینی تامین می‌شود. منابع مورد استفاده برای تامین آب شرب همواره در معرض تهدید آلاینده‌های مختلف می‌باشند. دراین مقاله با استفاده از مدل‌های MODFLOW، WhAEM2000 و DRASTIC محدوده حریم کیفی چاه‌های شرب تعیین شده است. در این تحقیق ابتدا مدل مفهومی آبخوان دشت رودان توسط مدل MODFLOW ساخته شد. مدل پایدار برای یک سال آبی نرمال و همچنین مدل ناپایدار برای سه سال آبی ساخته شد که خطای مدل برای حالت ماندگار و غیر ماندگار به ترتیب برابر با 49/1 و 32/2 به دست آمد. در ادامه از نتایج بدست آمده در محیط WhAEM2000 استفاده شد و حریم کیفی چاه‌ها به دو روش شعاع ثابت محاسبه‌شده و روش تحلیلی محاسبه گردید. سپس با استفاده از روش DRASTIC میزان آسیب‌پذیری آبخوان در محدوده‌های حریم کیفی چاه‌های شرب شناسایی و مبنایی برای تعیین دوره بازگشت حریم کیفی در محدوده دشت رودان در استان هرمزگان گردید. نتایج نشان داد که عمده چاه‌های شرب در محدوده با آسیب‌پذیری بالا واقع شده و عمده کاربری اراضی واقع در محدوده حریم کیفی فعالیتهای کشاورزی است. برای این مناطق حریم کیفی با دوره بازگشت 10 ساله تعیین گردید زیرا اعمال حریم کوچک، خطر آلودگی آب چاه را بالا می‌برد. همچنین برای مناطق با آسیب پذیری کمتر و کاربری‌های اراضی دیگر نیز می‌توان حریم حفاظتی کوچکتری اعمال کرد؛ زیرا اعمال حریم بزرگتر در این مناطق هزینه‌های اجتماعی و اقتصادی زیادی را به دنبال خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the groundwater quality protection zone by considering the vulnerability of aquifer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ghadir Zamani Moghadam 1
  • Ali Moridi 2
  • Jafar Yazdi 2
1 M.Sc. Student, Civil, Water and Environmental Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University.
2 Assistant Professor, Civil, water and environmental Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

In most areas, much of the drinking water supplies from groundwater resources are constantly threatened by various pollutants. In this paper, the groundwater quality protection zone is defined using MODFLOW, WhAEM2000 and DRASTIC models. In this research at the beginning, the conceptual model of Rudan plain aquifer has been made by MODFLOW model. The model is calibrated for the year of 1389-90 in the steady state with the root mean square error about 1.49 m error. Also, the model is calibrated for the period 1389-91 with the root mean square error about 2.32. Then, the groundwater quality protection zone is determined by using WhAEM2000 model in both constant radius and analytical methods. Finally, the vulnerability level of the aquifer was identified by using the DRASTIC model and considered for determining the protection zone area.
Results showed that most of the wells are located in the highly vulnerable zone with agricultural land use. So, Because of the high risk of groundwater pollution, extra travel time for groundwater (about 10 years) must be considered for determination of protection zone. Also, for less vulnerable areas and other land use areas, a smaller protection area can be applied, since the application of greater zone in these areas will lead to a lot of social and economic costs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • DRASTIC
  • WhAEM2000
  • MODFLOW
  • Aquifer Vulnerability
Abarashi F, Haghi M, Meftah M, Rahimian M (2014) Determination of effective factors on drinking wellhead protection area by using simulation groundwater model (Case study: Zarringol Plain). Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage 8(3) (In Persian)
Abedi Kouoai j, Zamani N, Goodarzi M, Akhavan S (2017) Studying different methods for wellhead protection area delineation using WhAEM2000 analytic model in drinking wells of Damaneh-Daran. Iran-Water Resources Research 13(4):39-50
Abrishmchi A (2012) Wellheaad protection guide for packaging drnking wells. Department of Water and Wastewater, Ministry of Energy, Code-404-a (In Persian)
Akbarpur A, Etebari B, Borzuni S (2011) Groundwater modeling in order to determine wellhead protection area of drinking wells (case study: Birjand). In proc. Of 4th Iran Water Resource Management Conference, 3- May, Tehran (In Persian)
Alizadeh A, Afshin S, Danesh S (2009) Determination and mapping of wellhead protection of Mashhad protection defining strategy and setting priorties. The World Bank Global Partnership Associate Program, Note 8, Pp 4
Aller L, Lehr J H, Petty R, and Bennett T (1987) DRASTIC: A standardized system to evaluate groundwater pollution potential using hydrogeologic settings. National Water Well Association, Worthington, Ohio, United States of America
Badv K (2005) Funda­mentals of capture zone calculation for qualititative protection of urban drinking waterwells. Esteghlal 23(2):77-91 (In Persian)
Badv K, Mollaie M (2005) Standards and methods of wellhead protection delineation- Case study for number 33 drinking well of Urmia. First National Civil Engineering Conference, 3-4 May Tehran (In Persian)
Ehtiat M, Mousavi S J, Vaghefi S A, and Ghaheri A (2016) Analysis of recharge conceptualization in inverse groundwater modelling. Hydrological Sciences Journal 61(15):2789-2801
Javadi S, Kavehkar N, Mousavizadeh M H, Mohammadi K (2011) Modification of DRASTIC model to map groundwater vulnerability to pollution using nitrate measurements in agricultural areas.  Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 13(2):239-249 
Karimi L, Javid A, Babaei Y (1389) Determination of the point of the groundwater resources using the guidelines on how to issue a permit for water packaging for drinking purposes (Proposed by the Ministry of Energy) and WhAEM2000 (Proposed by EPA) (Case study: Bojnourd Park Drinking Well). National Clean Water Conference (In Persian)
Khodabakhshi N, Asadollahfardi G, and Heidarzadeh N (2015) Application of a GIS-based DRASTIC model and groundwater quality index method for evaluation of groundwater vulnerability: A case study, Sefid-Dasht. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 15(4):784-792
Moinante M J and Lobo-Ferreira J P (2005) On wellhead protection assessment methods and a case­-study application in Montemor-O-Novo, Portugal. The Fourth Inter-Celtic Colloquium on Hydrology and Managment of Water Resources, Pp 21-34
Niknam R, Mohammadi K, and Majd V J (2007) Groundwater vulnerability evaluation of Tehran-Karaj Aquifer using DRASTIC method and fuzzy logic. Journal of Iran-Water Resources Research 3(2):39-47 (In Persian)
Rahman M and Shahid S H (2008) Modeling groundwater flow for the delineation of wellhead protection areas around a water-well at Nachole of Bangladesh. Journal of Spatial Hydrology 4(1):13-22
Rezaei F, Ahmadzadeh M R, and Safavi H R (2017) SOM-DRASTIC: Using self-organizing map for evaluating groundwater potential to pollution. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment 31:1941-1956, doi: 10.1007/s00477-016-1334-3
Rezaei F, Safavi H R, and Ahmadi A (2013) Groundwater vulnerability assessment using fuzzy logic: A case study in the Zayandehrood aquifers, Iran. Environmental Management 51(1):267-277
Sabet Raftar A (2013) Groundwater protection area instruction. Ministry of energy. Management and Planning Organization, Department of Engineering and Technical standards of Water and Wastewater, Code-621 (in Persian)
Safavi H R, Rastghalam M (2017) Solution to the water crisis in the Zayandehrud River basin; joint supply and demand management. Journal of Iran-Water Resources Research 12(4):12-22 (In Persian)
Siarkos I and Latinopoulos P (2012) Delineation of wellhead protection zones for the control of point pollution sources in the aquifer of N. Moudania, Greece. European Water 40:3-17
Soltani S, Asghari Moghadam A, Barzegar R, and Kazemian N (2018) Ulnerability assessment of Kordkandi-Duzduzan Plain groundwater using calibrated DRASTIC model. Journal of Iran-Water Resources Research 13(4):89-99 (In Persian)
Todd W R, Kenneth R B, and Maureen A M (2001) Report delineation of capture zone for municipal wells in fractured dolomite, Sturgeon Bay Wisconsin. USA., Journal of Hydrology 9:432- 450
Zamani N (2016) Groundwater protection using vulnerability map with fuzzy clustering method and determining wellhead protection area of Damaneh Daran aquifer’s drinking wells. Water Recourses Engineering, M.Sc. Thesis, Isfahan University of Technology, Geographical Research 92(1):109-127 (In Persian