تنظیم منحنی فرمان سدها با استفاده از مفهوم جریان زیست‌محیطی (مطالعه موردی: رودخانه‌های منتخب منتهی به دریاچه‌ی ارومیه)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری سازه های آبی/ گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

2 دانشیار / گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران.

3 دانشیار/ گروه آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

4 دانشیار /گروه مهندسی عمران و معماری، دانشگاه پاویا، پاویا، ایتالیا.

5 استادیار/ گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه ایندیانا، پنسیلوانیا، ایالات متحده‌ی امریکا.

چکیده

دریاچه ارومیه واقع در شمال­غرب ایران به دلیل عوامل طبیعی و انسانی با بحران جدی مواجه شده است. تنظیم منحنی فرمان سدها و باز توزیع بهینه آن­ها برای حفظ سلامتی اکوسیستم دریاچه ضروری است. در یک روش ساده هیدرولوژیکی رژیم جریان بهینه سدها با استفاده از حجم جریان حوضه آبریز پایین­دست می­تواند تخمین زده شود. بر این اساس در تحقیق حاضر منحنی فرمان سدهای مخزنی شهید­کاظمی، شهرچای، زولا، دیریک، عجب­شیر، ونیار و علویان در حوضه آبریز دریاچه ارومیه تحت سه سیاست متفاوت بهره­برداری (30%، 50% و 80% از میانگین جریان سالانه به عنوان حجم آب قابل رهاسازی) محاسبه شده است. سپس با استفاده از داده­ی اندازه­گیری شده، مقدار ماهانه مؤلفه­ی QResidual (تلفات و آوردها در پایین­دست) محاسبه شد. در گام بعدی مؤلفه­ی QAAD (حجم آب در دسترس سالانه در آخرین ایستگاه آبسنجی) برای سه سناریو بهره­برداری از سد محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد با بکار بردن 80% از میانگین جریان سالانه (سناریو 3)، تمامی رودخانه­ها مقدار مثبتی برای QAADخواهند داشت؛ بنابراین سناریو 3 به‌عنوان سناریو مؤثر بر احیای دریاچه انتخاب شد. درنهایت مقدار ماهانه QCAH(نزدیک­ترین هیدروگراف به هیدروگراف طبیعی رودخانه) در آخرین ایستگاه آبسنجی و QRW (حجم آب مورد نیاز ماهانه برای خروج از سد) محاسبه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Regulation of the Rule Curve of Dams Based on Conception of Environmental Flow (Case Study: Elected Inflow Rivers to Lake Urmia)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Soudi 1
  • Hojjat Ahmadi 2
  • Mehdi Yasi 3
  • Stefano Sebilla 4
  • Sajjad Ahmad hamidi 5
1 Ph.D Student of Water Structure, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Indiana University, Pennsylvania, USA.
چکیده [English]

Lake Urmia located in the north-west of Iran has been facing a serious environmental crisis because of some natural and anthropogenic factors. Regulation of rule curve of dams and optimum redistribution of those is essential for conservation the ecosystem of the lake. In a simple hydrological method, optimum flow regime that should be released from dams is estimated by calculation of run­off of down­stream catchment. In this regards, rule curve of the major reservoir dams (Shahid­Kazemi, Shahr­Chai, Zola, Derik, Venyar, Ajabshir and Alavian) in the Lake Urmia basin under three different operation policies (30%, 50% and 80% of MAF) has been calculated. Then by using measured data, monthly value of QResidual (the run­off of the down­stream catchment) has been calculated. In the next step, the term of QAAD (the volume of annual available water in the last station) for each scenario has been determined. The results revealed that by using 80% of MAF (as scenario 3), the value of QAAD would be positive for all the assessed stations; so scenario 3 is selected as effective action for restoration of the lake. Finally for scenario 3, monthly value of QCAH (the nearest hydrograph to natural hydrograph of rivers) in the last station for each rivers and the term of QRW (the monthly volume of water for releasing from dam) have been calculated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Operation of dams
  • Hydrological Method
  • Flow regime of rivers
  • Lake Urmia
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