تأثیر کم آبیاری بر قیمت آب آبیاری و بهره وری آب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته ی دوره ی دکتری تخصصی علوم و مهندسی آبیاری/ تهران، ایران

2 استاد / گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده‌ی کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

کاهش روزافزون منابع آب و اثر آن بر کمیّت و کیفیّت محصولات، سبب شده کشاورزان از کم‌آبیاری به عنوان راهکاری برای مقابله با کمبود آب بهره ببرند. از سوی دیگر، اهمیّت آب به عنوان کالایی واسطه‌ای و کمبود آن، سبب افزایش رقابت برای دسترسی به آن شده و آب را به عنوان کالایی اقتصادی مطرح می‌کند. در این راستا، تعیین قیمت آب آبیاری در شرایطی که کم‌آبیاری به عنوان راهکاری برای افزایش بهره‌وری آب مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرد، ضروری است. در پژوهش حاضر گیاه فلفل سبز قلمی ، تحت چهار تیمار آبیاری 50، 70، 100 و 120 درصد نیاز آبی و در گلخانه‌ی شخصی نویسندگان در شهر تهران و تحت کنترل کامل شرایط محیطی کشت شد. پس از پایان دوره‌ی کشت و برداشت گیاه، تابع تولید محصول بر اساس مقدار مادّه‌ی خشک تولید شده به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که با اعمال کم‌آبیاری و پس از بهینه‌سازی عمق آب آبیاری، قیمت آب به 44/183 (هزار ریال به ازای هر متر مکعّب) رسید که حداکثر قیمت به دست آمده برای آب در این ‌پژوهش می‌باشد. همچنین، در شرایط کم‌آبیاری، راندمان کاربرد آب آبیاری67/5 (کیلوگرم بر متر مکعّب)، بهره-وری فیزیکی1/5 (کیلوگرم بر متر مکعّب)، بهره‌وری فیزیکی- اقتصادی 42/191 (هزار ریال به ازای هر متر مکعّب در هر هکتار) و بهره‌وری اقتصادی 04/1 به دست آمد. همچنین کم آبیاری، قبل از بهینه‌سازی عمق آب آبیاری، بر راندمان آبیاری اثر قابل توجّهی نداشت در حالی که پس از بهینه سازی عمق آب، سبب افزایش راندمان آبیاری نسبت به حالت آبیاری کامل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of deficit irrigation on irrigation water price and water productivity

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farimah Omidi 1
  • Mehdi Homaee 2
1 Ph.D. Scholar of Irrigation Science and Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Department, Agriculture and Natural Resources Campus, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran,
چکیده [English]

Increasing scarcity of water resources and its influence on quality and quantity of crop yield motivates farmers to apply deficit irrigation as an approach to overcome the lack of water. On the other hand, the importance of water as an intermediate good in agriculture has increased competition to access water as an economic good. Consequently, determining the irrigation water price under deficit irrigation is necessary to improve water productivity. In order to assess the impact of water price on water productivity, in this study green pepper was cultivated under four different water levels including 50, 70, 100 and 120% of crop water requirement. The crop was cultivated in the writers’ personal greenhouse under controlled and isolated environmental circumstances in Tehran. The crop yield was then harvested and its dry matter measured at the end of growth period. The results showed that after applying deficit irrigation and optimizing irrigation water depth, water price was reached to the maximum which was 183.44×〖10〗^3 Rials per cubic Meter. In addition, under deficit irrigation, water use efficiency was 5.67(kg/m³), physical productivity was 5.1(kg/m³), physical-economical productivity was 191.42×〖10〗^3 (Rls/m³/ha) and economical productivity was 1.04. Furthermore, the deficit irrigation before water depth optimization did not considerably affect irrigation efficiency, while after water depth optimization, deficit irrigation resulted better irrigation efficiency than full irrigation scheme.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • water stress
  • Crop production function
  • Irrigation efficiency
  • Economic productivity
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