مقایسه و ارزیابی ردپای آب آبی، سبز و خاکستری گندم در اقلیم‌های مختلف ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی آب/دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان.

2 کارشناسی ارشد / آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان.

3 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی آب/ دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان.

4 دانشیار / گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان.

چکیده

ردپای‌آب نشان‌دهنده آب مصرفی واقعی محصولات در سه جزء آبی، سبز و خاکستری است، که امروزه در راستای مدیریت نوین منابع‌آب با رویکرد یکپارچه مورد‌ توجه قرار‌گرفته‌است. به‌منظور ارزیابی مناسب آب مصرفی در بخش کشاورزی، لازم است که شاخص ردپای‌آب در اقلیم‌های مختلف مورد بررسی قرار‌گیرد. در این تحقیق به ارزیابی ردپای آب محصول‌گندم در نقاط استراتژیک از نظر منابع‌آب (آب آبی، آب سبز و آب خاکستری) و ارائه الگوی‌کشت بهینه در اقلیم‌های مختلف ایران پرداخته‌شد. ابتدا 33 استان کشور بر اساس اقلیم‌بندی یونسکو طبقه‌بندی شدند. تمامی ایستگاه‌ها در 6 اقلیم، خیلی‌مرطوب خنک‌گرم (PH-C-W)، نیمه‌خشک سرد‌گرم (SA-K-W)، نیمه‌خشک خنک‌خیلی گرم (SA-C-VW) ، خشک خنک‌گرم (A-C-W)، خشک معتدل‌گرم (A-M-W) و خشک خنک خیلی‌گرم (A-C-VW) دسته‌بندی شدند. ردپای آب محصول در هر سه جزء آب آبی، سبز و خاکستری در هر اقلیم محاسبه‌شد. نتایج نشان‌داد، بیشترین مقادیر ردپای آب‌آبی در قسمت‌های مرکزی و جنوبی، بیشترین مقدار ردپای آب‌سبز در قسمت‌های شمالی و غربی و بیشترین مقدار ردپای آب‌خاکستری در قسمت‌های جنوبی دیده می‌شود. میانگین ردپای آب‌سبز، آبی و خاکستری به ترتیب 3/503، 8/1392 و 2/286 متر‌مکعب بر تن بدست‌آمد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که کشت محصول گندم در همه اقلیم‌ها مناسب نبوده و در اقلیم‌های A-C-W و A-C-VW ایران توصیه نمی‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison and evaluation of blue, green and gray water footprint of wheat in different climates of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tohid Aligholinya 1
  • Hosein Sheibany 2
  • Omid Mohamadi 3
  • Mousa Hesam 4
1 Ph.D. student of Water Science and Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
2 Master's degree in irrigation and drainage at Isfahan University of Technology.
3 Ph.D. student of Water Sciences and Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
4 Associate Professor of Water Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources.
چکیده [English]

Water footprint index shows actual consumption of water in three parts: Blue, green and gray. Today, the water footprint has been taken into account in the modern management of water resources with an integrated approach. In this research, wheat water footprint was evaluated at strategic points in terms of water resources (blue water, green water and gray water) and an optimal cropping pattern in different climates of Iran. For this purpose, 33 provinces of the country were first classified according to the UNESCO cluster. All stations were classified in 6 climates; Plentiful Humidity Cool Warm (PH-C-W), Semi -Arid Cold Warm (SA-K-W), Semi -Arid Cool Very Warm (SA-C-VW), Arid Cool Warm (A-C-W), Arid Mild Warm (A-M-W), Arid Cool Very Warm (A-C-VW). Then the water footprint was calculated and evaluated in each climate and all three component, including blue, green and gray water. The results showed that the highest amounts of blue water footprint are seen in the central and southern parts of Iran, the highest amounts of green water footprint in in the northern and western parts as well as the highest amount of gray water footprint in the southern parts of the country can be seen. The average of footprints for green, blue and gray was obtained 503.3, 1392.8 and 286.2of 34 m3/ton in the country. The results of this study showed that wheat crop cultivation was not suitable in all climates and was not recommended in A-C-W and A-C-VW regions of Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • UNESCO Climate category
  • Blue water
  • gray water
  • Green water
  • wheat water footprint
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