سازوکارهای سازگاری با تغییر اقلیم در بخش کشاورزی؛ معیارها و تکنیک‌های اولویت‌بندی

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه ترویج و کشاورزی، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری ایران.

2 استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده مهندسی زراعی و عمران روستایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

چکیده

اهمیت سازگاری با تغییر اقلیم در بخش کشاورزی به دلیل ماهیت آسیب‌­پذیر آن نسبت به مخاطرات اقلیمی، بیش از سایر بخش‌­های اقتصادی است. سازوکارهای سازگاری در بخش کشاورزی باید به شکلی طراحی و به کار برده شوند که علاوه بر کاهش ضررهای وارده، پایداری معیشت بخش عظیمی از خانوارهای شاغل در این بخش را نیز حفظ کنند. به دلیل وجود معیارهای مختلف و متعدد، نیاز است از تکنیک­های تصمیم‌­گیری به منظور اولویت‌‎بندی و انتخاب نهایی سازوکارهای سازگاری استفاده گردد. بنابراین، هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی معیارها و تکنیک­‌های اولویت­‌بندی جهت شناسایی مناسب‌‎ترین سازوکارهای سازگاری با تغییر اقلیم در بخش کشاورزی می­‌باشد. این پژوهش کیفی با روش تحلیل مضمون مقالات و منابع کتابخانه‌­ای به شناسایی معیارها و روش­های اولویت‌­بندی و نهایتاً انتخاب بهترین سازوکارهای سازگاری با تغییر اقلیم در بخش کشاورزی بوسیله نرم‎افزار MAXQDA پرداخته است. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش، معیارهای سازوکارهای سازگاری با تغییر اقلیم در بخش کشاورزی در دو مقوله­ اصلی هزینه‌­ها و فایده تقسیم‌­بندی می­‌شوند. در بخش هزینه به حداقل بودن هزینه کاربرد، حفظ و نگهداری و سایر هزینه‌‎ها تمرکز شده است. در بخش فایده نیز معیارها در قالب مقوله‌‎های فرعی پنج‌گانه­ نهادی- سیاسی، زیست‌م‌حیطی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی و اقلیمی قرار گرفته‌­اند. بر مبنای یافته‎‌ها، روش‌ها و تکنیک­‌های متفاوتی به منظور اولویت‌­بندی و انتخاب سازوکارهای مناسب پیشنهاد شده است ولی نمی­‌توان در تمامی موقعیت­‌ها یکی از آنها را توصیه نمود، بلکه این انتخاب باید متناسب با شرایط، هدف و سطح منابع اطلاعاتی موجود صورت پذیرد. بدین منظور نقاط قوت و ضعف متداول‌ترین روش‌­های اولویت‌‎بندی و انتخاب سازوکارهای سازگاری با تغییر اقلیم ارائه شده است. این روش‌­ها شامل روش‌­های تجزیه و تحلیل چند متغیره، تحلیل سلسله‌‎مراتبی، تحلیل‌­های اقتصادی و تجزیه و تحلیل شبکه است که موجب شناسایی بهتر این سازوکارها می‎‌گردد و در این پژوهش مورد بحث قرار گرفته‎‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Agriculture Sector; Criteria and Prioritization Technique

نویسندگان [English]

  • Omid Jamshidi 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Javad Sobhani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Km 9/Darya Boulevard, Sari, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture Engineering and Rural Development, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The importance of adaptation to climate change in the agricultural sector due to its vulnerable nature to climate risks is more than other economic sectors. Adaptation strategies in the agricultural sector should be designed and applied in a way that reduce losses and also sustain the livelihoods of the vast majority of working households. Due to the existence of different criteria, it is necessary to use decision-making techniques in order to prioritize and ultimately select adaptation strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the criteria and prioritization techniques to identify the most appropriate climate change adaptation strategies in the agricultural sector. This qualitative research was done by content analysis of literature using MAXQDA software to identify criteria, prioritization technique and finally selecting climate change adaptation strategies in the agriculture sector. Based on findings, indicators of climate change adaptation strategies are divided into two main costs and benefits categories. In the cost category, emphasis was on the criteria of the minimum cost of implementation, maintenance, and other costs. Also in the benefits category, the criteria are divided into five sub-categories: institutional-political, environmental, social, economic, and climatic. Based on the results, different methods and techniques have been proposed to prioritize and select appropriate strategies. However, it is not possible to recommend one of them in all situations, but this choice should be made in accordance with the situation, purpose, and level of available information resources. For this purpose, the strengths and weaknesses of the most common methods of prioritization and selection of adaptation mechanisms to climate change are presented. These methods including multi-criteria analysis, hierarchical analysis, economic analysis, and network analysis, have been discussed in this study to better identify and select the most suitable set of strategies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate change
  • agriculture sector
  • adaptation
  • Strategies
  • Criteria
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